Fatty Acid / Glycerine & Acid Oils

Fatty Acid Plants




Hydrolysis process occurs at temperature of 245~255 degree C & pressure between 55~60 bar.

a) De-aeration

Crude oil is heated and deaerated under vacuum to remove un-dissolved gasses before ??entering subsequent high temperature splitting section.

b) splitting

in the splitter, fatty acids are produced by counter-current splitting of oil with steam under temperature up to 260ºC and pressure up to 6 bar.

c) fatty acid drying

the fatty acid form splitter is flashed and dried to remove the residual moisture. The crude fatty acids are relatively dark in colour and contain impurities. The fatty acids are subsequently purified to separated into fractions through distillation or fractionation.

d) Glycerine-water pre-concentration

crude glycerine is discharged from the bottom of splitter continuously. Crude glycerine water is first flashed before entering the evaporation stage. Concentration of crude glycerine obtained after the multiple effect evaporators is about 25%~35%.

Water flashed from crude glycerine is used for heat recovery in the multi-stage evaporators before pumped back to the splitter for reuse



To Produce High Purity Fatty Acid Fractions Process Description

Fatty acid fractionation plant is designed to separate the fatty acid fractions or individual components based on boiling plant profile (relative volatility between fractions).

a) De-aeration

Crude fatty acid is first heated and deaerated under vacuum to remove undissolved gasses before entering subsequent high temperature fractionation section. This is to avoid undesired oxidative reaction that will affect the product quality.

 b) Fractionation (2-column system) fatty

Fatty acid is fed to column 1, where it is evaporated with falling-film type evaporated (can be designed for heating medium of heat transfer oil or high-pressure steam).

Fraction 1 is condensed in a final condenser and the liquid is withdrawn from the column top.  Bottom fraction of column 1 is fed into column 2, where it is evaporated with falling film evaporators at higher temperature.

Fraction 2 is condensed by a surface condenser (which is designed for heat recovery by steam generation), followed by a final condenser.

Fraction 3 (bottom fraction of column 2), can be sent to a distillation section for removal from residue  


Removal of low & High Boiling Components from Fatty Acids.



Distillation Process makes Use of the difference in boiling points between the desired fatty acids and the impurities, to effect of separation to these components. Crude fatty acids produced from fats splitting process are purified by distillation, and can be separated further into individual fatty acid by fractional distillation. Fatty acid distillation carried out under reduced pressure (vacuum) and lowest possible temperature to ensure product stability. in the distillation, the fatty acids are vaporized and then condensed, leaving the high-boiling impurities (residue) in the distillation still. The condensed fatty acids distillate is known as “whole out” because fatty acids regardless of the chain lengths present in the feedstock will be condensed and collected as fatty acid distillate.


Sweet water concentration is carried out after the Purification process. A pump moves the water from the purification chamber to the concentration chamber. The glycerin water is passed through a feed heater and further on to the 1st effect Evaporator. The temperature is increased to around 130 degree Celsius in the 1st effect evaporator with steam at about 8-10 bar. The moisture is then removed and the sweet water is returned to the 1st effect evaporator for heating.

There on the sweet water is passed to the 2nd and 3rd evaporators sequentially where the temperatures are maintained at 80 and 50 degrees Celsius respectively. The condensate is collected in the condensate receiver and is reused as process water for the splitting tower.

Glycerin Plants


Glycerine Refining process

Glycerine refining process involves the following steps:

·         Deaeration

·         Distillation & condensation

·         Bleaching

·         Continuous salt Removal (optional)


Process Description

a) Deaeration

crude glycerine is first treated with sodium hydroxide. It is then heated and deaerated under vacuum to remove residual moisture, methanol (if any) and un-dissolved gasses.

b) Distillation

partially dried crude glycerine is fed to the distillation still for further heating under high vacuum. Distillation is carried out by means of circulation with force-circulation heater (using medium pressure steam) at temperature of 160ºC. top column pressure is maintained at high vacuum to facilitate good separation efficiency.

c) Condensation

condensation of glycerine vapors is achieved in high efficiency structured packing ane special distributors. The high purity distillate 1 (>99.7%) is obtained from a hot condensation system. The glycerine from 2nd condensation system is recovered as technical grade glycerine (90%) (Also, known as yellow Glycerine) or recycled back to glycerine pre-treatment section.

d) Bleaching

Glycerine distillate 1 is filtered through activated carbon bed at 80 ºC to remove colour

e) Salt Removal

when glycerine is distilled, the non-boiling compounds (MONG, Salt, Soap, etc.) are being concentrated glycerine is periodically bled off to decanter system to remove salt as solid discharge. Liquid residue from decanter will be sent to post distillation still where glycerine is distilled of further.

Acid Oil Plants


PEMAC Offers new generation, completely environment friendly soap stock splitting/Acid oil plants.

This Latest designed Plants are completely closed & does not pass any acid fumes to the atmosphere. The final output will be acid oil with good colour which is the direct raw material for the soap plants.

Process Description

Soap stock from process house is accumulated in a homo-gentian tank, which is equipped with the open steam heating arrangement. In this soap stock is heated with the open steam, so as to evaporate moisture as per as possible in term of splitting. Minimizing acid consumption for splitting. This soap stock is pumped through the horizontal screw pump to the acid reactors for splitting, Reactors are PP FRP constructed fully closed vessel, equipped with copper stem heating cum agitation coils, light & sight Glasses, inspection manhole etc. splitting takes place in semi-continuous manner. Reactor are used in cycle for splitting operation. After getting appropriate charge in selected reactor, the soap stock is getting boiled in term of drying with steam heating cum agitation coils.

After removing maximum moisture pre-calculated amount of acid (H2SO4) will be added slowly splitting is done under continuous observation so as to maintain appropriate acid value of final product also avoiding excess acid fumes. After completion of splitting operation, settling process starts for 3-4 hour. After that water is getting drained to the fat trap tank and clear acid oil is pumped to the storage tank with PP pump. Fat trap tank is PP FRP Constructed rectangular tank specially designed with multi-compartment & syphoning system to collect all the droplets of acid oil.

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